Are professional 3d printers overpriced?

For what it’s worth, the articles I write are not only based on my opinion and experience,  common sense is also part of my written content.

In the first place you should ask ourself what you would define to be a professional 3d printer. Is it about price, durability, quality, size, usability, repeatability, speed, portability, cloud-based usage, shared usage, or possibly some other requirement that you find inportant? If you read the world’s professional literature about 3d-printing, it is always about either making one-off products or prototypes for complex (machine, dental, medical) purposes, or it has to do with printing parts in series for a specific branch of industry.  In both cases, the to be printed material is mostly nothing like the hobbyist uses. Professional printing goes from carbon/fiber to stainless steel, ceramics, titanium and so on.  Most professional production printers are in the price range above 30 k Euro.

3d printers from 500 Euro up until 15 k Euro are usually very good and precise at printing with common materials like ABS/PLA/Nylon/PetG, Carbon/wood et cetera and have a higher price tag than standard consumer models due to specific added value like the ability to print really big models, heated chamber, multicolor et cetera.

The X1 160Pro™ is the world’s largest metal binder jetting system and is now shipping to customers. A controlled-atmosphere model of the system, capable of high-volume aluminum and titanium production, will be available in late 2022. (Photo: Business Wire)And- after printing, most of these printed parts need post-processing like sintering for aluminium.

BigRep Pro 3D Printer | KeeraTech
BigRep PRO™

The price for professional 3d printers is a summation of a number of  drivers, like:

  1. Developing / staffing
  2. Developing / materials
  3. Tools, housing, and so on
  4. Patents costs
  5. Production costs
  6. Marketing costs
  7. Post-delivery costs (Service/maintenance)

With the hobbyist’s 3d printers, there is really only one driver for the costs, which is production.  All other items from the above list have already been put in the public domain and are therefore not put in the final selling price. With professional 3d printers, the production numbers are usually low, and developing processes are usually lengthy and expensive.  Thus, the price per sold 3d printer will be uplifted a lot from the development related costs. On top of this, the real development of 3d printing is not even starting.  The pioneers that develop printers will have to keep developing over and over again.  Only when professional 3d printers will be in a stable production phase and development is more like tweaking than making large steps, it is possible to see prices drop.

So- to answer the question: No, professional 3d printers will not be overpriced. But- they are expensive and are only interesting if you already need products that can now be made with such a specific printer. Think of car parts development, Formula 1- engine developments and so on.  In these industries, it is very expensive to get a mold and rework a rough newly developed product in the conventional way so a 3d metalprinter will fulfill an already existing need.  And the investment will pay back very quick due to the fast production times. And- the engineers that design a part can just use their existing tooling to make designs  for 3d printing.

independant Z-axis with FLY-CDY-V2

I replaced my Duet2wifi with the Mellow’s FLY-CDY-V2 motherboard

My cloned Duet2wifi MB that was running in my I3 bear suddenly refused to start up any longer, so I decided to put my recently purchased Mello FLY-CDY-V2 motherboard in the I3 bear printer.  Up to now, the makerbase Duet2wifi clones keep working properly and all other clones die on me…

During the replacement process I encountered the following issues:

  1. The microSD card sleeve on the board was loose on 1 side. I noticed that the board just got in a frozen status now and then.  The solution I finally discovered was that the microSD card holder had to be soldered back to the board, so the SD card made better contact with the little metal parts inside the holder.  Since the repair, no problems anymore!
  2. The connectors of the Fly vboard are standard X254 connectors, which I prefer.  But, the Duet uses propriatary ones so I had to replace all connectors.  But, I shortened all cables in doing this so I now have a very neat looking etup.
  3.  I had to print a new case for this board. I found only 1 available version that also had a fan in the cover.  Slick and well ventilated.  Available on Thingiverse!
  4. The available help on internet like Github pages are all well documented but you must be certain to choose the V2 version of the board for firmware and so on since the FLY-CDY (without V2) is a completely different board with another processor (LPC).  be aware that things are not comparable between the two boards.  The V2 is not just an upgrade!
  5. The rest on the board is quite clear with regards to usage and placement. All self-explainatory.
  6. The only way to connect your paneldue is via the serial 4-pin connector.  The block cables don’t work ‘as-is’.  The paneldue works flawless.
  7. The firmware and DWC software works very well on this STM32-based board. Also updating works flawlesssly.
  8. The difference that matters most to me is some little issues like different naming conventions, pin naming differences between the 2 boards and so on.  Nothing very difficult but is makes it impossible to swap your configs between the boards without some editing.  I would thing=k that cloning should be done more reliable, that would make the board sell better imho.
  9. There is no breakout/expansion port.  Due to the chosen processor, the potential of the Due2wifi with the many expansion possibilities is niot available on the CDY-FLY-V2.
  10. What you do get on the FLY-CDY-V2:
    1. Neopixel port up to 60 WS2812 LEDS (10 max or more with seperate 5V PSU)
    2. max 4 heaters ( 1 bed, 3 other) 
    3. max 4 temp sensors (1 bed, 3 others)
    4. max  3 controllable (PWM) fan outputs
    5. max 6 steppers with any sort of (pluggable) drivers (UART only, no SPI)
    6. max 6 end- (or other) switch inputs
    7. 12-36 Volt power input
    8. BLtouch port fully functional
    9. wifi unit
    10. DWC webbased DUET2wifi controllable
    11. Laser port
    12. A limited number of controllable GPIO pins are available on the EXP2 and EXP 1 port, this could be used for driving accessories like magnets, valves, extra LED’s and so on (via uplifters/Mosfet boards)
    13. Jumper for setting the power to the min/max switches at VCC or 5V (choose 5V!!)
    14. If you want, the option to have PT100 chip installed gives you 1 input for PT100
    15. The Duet2wifi firmware suite is available for this board through a specific development Github page, and as long as this is maintained updates for the board’s reprap firmware and DWC are available.

Dual carriage I3 Duet2wifi build and Config files

My dual carriage I3-bear based 3d printer is working very well. On this page I will share my latest configuration files, my build experiences like the used STL’s , schematics and so on.  Hope you enjoy!

The config.g for this build and the Duet2wifi is HERE

The Sys directory for the dual carriage build and Duet2wifi is HERE

The Macros directory for the dual carriage build and Duet2wifi is HERE

The build plan for the 2040 extrusion frame is HERE

2.1 version Prusa i3 MK3/MK3S Bear Z Extended 459mm Black kit 2040  Extrusion Anodized After Cut Prusa i3 MK3 Bear Profile Frame|3D Printer  Parts & Accessories| - AliExpress

The STL files for the X-axis carriages and carriages are HERE

All other needed STL files for the printer are HERE

The Duet’s case and 4.3 inch Paneldue’s case are HERE

The page of the working printer is HERE

The build plans for the electronics and Duet2wifi wiring schemes are HERE

Please donate $1 to my paypal account if you use (parts of) my developed materials so I can continue to share nice stuff for you to download


FLY CDY V2 SDcard content download

Download all required files to get started with the FLY_CDY_V2 reprap based motherboard

Since the FLY_CDY_V2 STM32 board comes without any firmware installed, I made a simple link for you to download and extract everything you need to a 2-16GB microSDcard. 

Just download, extract, burn as-is to SD and plug it in the board, fire the board up and all works!

Make sure you follow the guideline HERE for getting attached to the board via wifi by using a USB cable and YAT terminal on your PC to get the home wifi SSID and Password programmed to ROM into the board, AFTER you installed firmware by putting in the SDcard and firing it up.

The settings in config.g at the SDcard are made for a Cartesian XYZ machine with triple extruder.  This can all be changed to fit your build in config.g. 

For a delta, use THIS DUET2wifi DELTA config.g and change the pin_name of bed heater  according to the FLY_CDY_V2 name convention (thus: use bed instead of bed_heater).  

For more info about the board and connecting to the electronics, steppers, endstops, filament sensors, BLTouch, Neopixels etcetera go HERE

Please donate $1 to my paypal account if you use (parts of) my developed materials so I can continue to share nice stuff for you to download




Jan Griffioen

Mellow FLY-CDY-V2 motherboard

recently (3-2021) I have been setting up my new 3d printerboard from Mellow, an STM32 board that is named FLY CDY V2. It is fully compatible with Duet2Wifi and also uses its wifi-based 3d printer management system.

The config file I made for this setup is HERE

The FLY_CDY_V2 board comes completely empty so I added the firmware.bin in the /sys directory, after I had an empty SD card filled with the clean reprap directories and -files.

Next to the firmware.bin. also a board.txt is required to be available in /sys with some settings, with the following content:

//Config for fly-CDY
board = fly_cdyv2
led.neopixelPin = D.15;
//wifi pins
8266wifi.espDataReadyPin = E.10;
8266wifi.TfrReadyPin = E.12;
8266wifi.espResetPin = E.11;
8266wifi.serialRxTxPins = { D.9, D.8 };
heat.tempSensePins = { B.1 , A.3 , C.4 , D.14}; be aware that D.14 is not a temp pin but a heat pin, is this wrong??
stepper.numSmartDrivers = 6;
serial.aux.rxTxPins = {A.10, A.9};

This board.txt is already OK for 2209 drivers and for the use of the neopixels output.

In the pdf that is provided by Mellow on the Github page for the reprap STM32 boards, section FLY-CDYV2, everything is explained as to get wifi up and running,  configure config.g et cetera.  

In my config.g everything needed to work properly is already done, as is with my board.txt.

I made the config for a Cartesian printer with single X,Y,Z steppers and a triple hotend with 3 extruders, 1 heater and 3 nozzles.
Included is: Neopixels, BLTouch, 3 filament sensors on the X,Y- and Zmax inputs, active fans for hotend tool on fan1 and object on fan0
If so desired, sensorless homing is possible with the correct driver boards. In this version, 3 optical endstops have been used on inputs xmin, ymin and zmin.
Retraction is set OFF in this firmware by default, but may be swiched ON to make the triple hotend drip less (2 mm retract and -0.5 extrude without Z-hop), do experiment with these settings!
Please be aware that some pin names for the FLYCDYV2 board differ form the Duet’s naming convention like “bed” versus “bed-heater” et cetera.
Plus, some typical Duet2wifi extensions are NOT available like the GPIO bus.
The FLYCDYV2 has some interesting standard extra’s like the BLTouch connector with power, driver pins and Z probe pins, the Neopixel connector AND the 6 driver slots and 3 extruder heaters/sensors/fans!
It is quite simple to change this setup to a dual Z axis with independant Z-motors and either single extruder or a dual setup, single or dual nozzle, mixing or non-mixing.
Please see my complete ready-to-go config directory setups for this board HERE to get you  started! 

Please donate $1 to my paypal account if you use (parts of) my developed materials so I can continue to share nice stuff for you to download


Dual carriage I3 with Duet2wifi

My last build from scratch is the dual carriage I3-based printer as shown in the below picture, in the building phase.  This printer can be used either for 2 colors or for printing with soluble support PVA filament.

Get my build plans and Configuration files for Duet2wifi HERE

The box at the left rear is for the Duet2wifi board.  The 24V fan-regulated power supply is already positioned at the rear,  right side.

The greatest challenge with this build was the settings for the dual tools.

It took 2 months before I got it correct working with both PLA and/or Petg.

As with my previous dual color dual nozzle builds, the basics is very simple. Just define 2 tools with 2 heaters, 2 temp sensors, 2 fans et cetera.

I already envisioned the approch with the slicer(s): All offsets are done ONLY in firmware, NOT in the slicer! As far as the slicer(s) is/are concerned, the nozzles of Tool0 and 1 are at the same (X0/Y0) offset.

For the Duet, the only addition in the slicer is an M0 command as stop command for the printer.  Define 2 nozzles of 1.75mm without any offset and you’re done in the slicer.

Then agin, you will need to set everything in your config.g at the tool section like XYZ offset and so on.

I decided to get T0 as reference, and set everything to 0 there. X=0, Y=0 and Z=0.  Then, measure the differences at T1 versus T0 with calipers to start with and inport these values in the T1 toolsection in config.g.

Start a testprint and measure what to amend, take little steps and the metrics are done!

But- the hard part is- as I experienced- to get good prints without blobs and unexpected stringing, both incoming as outgoing (into and out of the printed object(s).

In the end, I just took the same approach as with the tool settings: As little as possible retraction settings in the slicer and all except the basic print retractions are now in the configuration files that are called upon Tool changes tpre.g,  tfree.g and tpost.g (for T0 and T1).

This means that you can play with retracting and extruding of filament length and speed directly at, during and after Tool changes.  And- in my experience it is all affected by the type of filament you use and the temperature you are at with the hotend. Also, the fact whether you use a lower temperature during waiting has great impact.

In my experience, you should finetune the config settings for the mentioned settings per object and per type of filament.

Therefore, I decided to used this printer for only 1 goal and make the settings perfect to accomplish this goal.  Right now, I have optimized this printer to print 1) PLA from 123print in the Netherlands, of a specific type and 2) PVA from the same supplier.  This gives me the possibility to print complex objects with soluble supports and it works extremely well at doing this!

PM: I also added LED lights on top of the printer as an integrated feature.  This makes use of a heater pin as GPIO (with a M42  P [pin] S[value intensity]) command), like the solenoids that I use to catch the carriages T0 and T1. To come from the 3.3V and max 1mA from the GPIO pin to the required 24Volts, I used small mosfet boards.  All programming is done in the Duet’s config and macro files, view the below example of my stop.g file which is called from the slicer’s stop setting: M0.

; stop.g
; called when M0 (Stop) is run (e.g. when a print from SD card is cancelled)
; Also called by slicer end gcode by M0
M400 ; Finish move queue
M117 Cool down ; Update the LCD screen with “Cool down”
M83 ; Extruder relative mode
G1 E-2 ; Retract filament 2mm for both extruders !!
M106 S255 ; Fan at 100 to cool nozzle and bed
M104 S0 T0 ; Extruder T0 heater off
M104 S0 T1 ; Extruder T1 heater off
M140 S0 ; Bed heater off
G28 X ; Home X
M220 S100 ; Set speed factor back to 100% in case it was changed
M221 S100 ; Set extrusion factor back to 100% in case it was changed
M42 P4 S0 ; Magnet T0 off
M42 P5 S0 ; Magnet T1 off
M104 S41 T0 ; set extruder T0 to cool down
M104 S41 T1 ; set extruder T1 to cool down
;M568 R41:41 S41:41 ; set standby and active temperatures for tools 0 and 1 (or single M568 T0 R41 S41)
M116 ; wait for Tools actions as specified in above M568 instructions
G90 ; Absolute positioning
G1 Y200 ; to get objects removed easier, move bed forward
M106 P0 S0 ; Fan L object T0 off
M106 P2 S0 ; Fan R object T1 off
G28 X ; Home X
M84 ; Steppers off
M98 P/sys/ledflash.g; Perform execution of ledflash.g in specified directory
M42 P6 S0.008 ; Led light setting almost OFF
M117 Jantec=done! ; Update the LCD screen with “Jantec=done!”

G1 X5 Y5 ; Move to corner
M140 S{print_bed_temperature} ; Set bed temp
T1 ; Select extruder 1 (or 0 depending on how your printer is set up)
M104 S{print_temperature} ; Set extruder temp
M116; Wait for temperatures


Please donate $1 to my paypal account if you use (parts of) my developed materials so I can continue to share nice stuff for you to download


Geeetech A30M rebuilt with Duet2wifi


The motherboard of my Geeetech A30M was broken, due to a defective Y-axis motor as I experienced later.  I ordered a new Smartto motherboard from Geeetech, installed it and it broke down again, due to the shortcut in the Y motor. Very strange defect since the smartto board uses plug-in drivers.  However, unrepairable and a real pity to now be stuck with 2 smartto boards without any use for them with both having a defect on the Y output.   Exchanging drivers did not help, cables exchange did not help either…

the original smartto motherboard

After replacing the Y-motor,I decided to go for a complete rebuild of the A30M.  In the old files you can still see the original smartto A30M experiences on the A30M HERE.

Above, the movie of the first Duet2wifi experiences and the Chimera hotend.  Later, I decided to make the extruders direct-driven.

Get my  A30M config.g for reprap 3 Duet2wifi  for the original mixing hotend (1 nozzle, 2 extruders).

Get my hotend to motherboard cable and pin assignment  HERE:

2020 12 09 improved A30M Extruder toolhead cable to board after adding dual hotend dual nozzle dual heater and dual temp sensors

The chimera hotend, combined with dual direct drive bondtech extruders

The inside of the box of the A30M Geeetech 330x330x350mm 3d printer with the PanelDue, Duet2wifi and the 5 ports extension board attached to the Duet

This is the Paneldue 4.3 inch touch panel as mounted in the A30M case, with a very slim bezel since the Paneldue is mounted flush with the front of the A30M case.

2GSpro Delta rebuilt with Duet2wifi reprap 3.2.2 auto config G32

April 2021: My first 3d printer I bought back in 2014 finally got the Duet2wifi motherboard installed with 2 new extruders, piëzo Z-probe, new hotend, cabling, power supply, 24 Volt hotbed and 24 Volt fans.

The original motherboard is based on an Arduino Mega and had trouble keeping up with the latest firmware versions.

Besides that, I really want all my printers to have a sturdy wifi accessibility to manage them remotely.

The Duet has proved to be both reliable as easily configurable.

Paneldue 4.3 inch for Delta 2GSpro

The electronics has been rebuilt to 24 Volt and two Bondtech extruders have been installed, 1 left- and 1 right handed version. But- for the time being only 1 hotend got installed. I will install a properly working mixing hotend later. Or maybe a dual switching hotend, just to try it out.

Underneath the G2S pro delta with Duet2wifi board

One of the advantages of the Duet is the reprap firmware.  With a delta, reprap 3.2.2 has a G32 command which automatically configures all the difficult settings for the Delta printer like rod lenghts, endstop settings et cetera.  Provided that you have a bed.g file with enough 6 or 7-factor probe points.

I used the heater pins of the 2nd extruder as PWM power supply for my LED toplights.  If I ever install a dual hotend with 2 nozzles, I will add a Mosfet board  that converts 3.3 Volt to 24 Volt and then I will use a spare bed heater pin (most likely GPIO heater pin 4 or five) for the LED top light.  This works very well on all my other Duet boards where I connected LED lights to the printer . The LED’s are controlled via the PanelDue touchscreen (macros) and via the start/stop files.

All you need to measure yourself to  get the Delta configured is the Z-probe offset versus the nozzle position and the rest will be done through the G32 command.  The sequence is:  Perform G28, G32, M500, G29 and you’re done.  You will have to get the bed.g file for the G32 command to work as such from the escher3d website.  I used the 7-factor version.

PS: You don’t need to calibrate G29 at every print.  Please look at my homing file for the delta where-, after homing X-Y-X=Z to the top I only have a Z-probe G30 at the bed’s surface.  I will attach my final config.g code and all needed additional code for the delta with reprap 3.2.2 so you can benefit from my config.g for the Duet2wifi learnings HERE.  Cheers, Jan

Delta 2GS Duet2wifi
The full Delta2GSpro printer with topLED’s

PM: Things that are really needed: The Z-probe MUST be as close to the nozzle as  possible.  I had a BL Touch earlier which was positioned to the side of the center carriage and this never worked as supposed to.  It was positioned at 45 mm to the right and 25 mm to the front of the nozzle and this was clearly too far away to get a decent probing for G32.  With the BL Touch I never got good Delta basic settings.  The Piezo nozzle is a slim 6mm diameter version and has been strapped to the cold end of the E6D with a set of 1mm wires  and works perfect.

VORON 2.4 20″x20″x20″ and DUET2WIFI

Get the documentation, specs, config.g, macros and build docs

After my succesfull buildproject of a Voron 2.4 3d printer in the fall of 2020, I still wanted a really big 3d printer with a print surface of over 20x20x20 inch.

Imagine to have a print of more than double the size compared to the below picture!

During the build and at using the Voron 2.4 printer, I found the documentation on the hardware build really excellent.  But, the electronics part was scattered around several places, and although the Klipper implementation is very good I have experienced that the combination of 2 SKR 1.4 turbo motherboards with an Octopi controller does not provide enough operational stability to me. And- I feel the need to control more settings than I can do with the Klipper solution.  I think I probably am just more into the Duet and the reprap solution than the Klipper one, due to previous positive Duet – and MKS reprap experiences.

In a couple of previous builds I used a Duet2wifi, and I also experienced the add-ons for Duet2 like driver boards, PT100 boards and more hardware that is also very well implemented in the new RRF3+ firmware.

Reasons enough for me to choose the Duet2 and the 5-ports expansion board , or possibly an additional Duex board for my new to build Voron 2.4 ‘big 3d printer’.

At this page, I will share my progess on this build.

I have all required hardware laying around and since I already built a Voron 2.4, I will first focus on the electronics.  For the hardware, I still need the plexiglass sides, top and front doors.  I  do have all extrusion, bed, bed heater 230V, linear rails, all printed parts and so on, neatly stored at home.

So, I am setting up the electronics to know beforehand that everything works well.  I don’t want to start building the hardware and find out afterwards that my Duet2wifi will not do the job I want it to do.

Yesterday (October 4th,2020) I put the electronics and config.g together. I used:

  • Duet2wifi board with 24V PSU and 4.3 inch TFT/LCD
  • 5-port expansion board with 4 plug-in 2209 drivers V3.0
  • Z-switch mechanical
  • X-and Y end switches (hall-effect)
  • Hotend 24V with NTC connected including tool’s fan (I am missing the PT100’s interface board, have ordered one but I did this before so should be no problemo)
  • Hotbed simulated with another hotend including NTC
  • Stepper motors connected to X(0),Y(1) and 1 x  stepper on the expansion board Z(5) (Driver5)

The Duet2wifi board is a Chinese MKS clone with electronics version 1.02 which works fine.  The expansion board is also a Chinese one, but this is a bare-bone  implementation of the 5-ports driver add-on board that comes without drivers.  the nice thing about this add-on board is that drivers can be plugged in directly.

The Duet2 came with firmware 2.1 installed.  To get to FFR3.1, you must first install 3.0 and after this, you can move to 3.1…  be aware!

After updating the paneldue and the Duet2wifi board, I activated the wifi and put the ssid and PW in. (This procedure goes via USB between PC and Duet, using a terminal emulator like YAT)  This is a bit tiresome but given the security you get from it, I feel it is OK.

The settings that are needed to get the Chinese expension board to work are not too difficult.  Add the Z-drives, and change some other settings. On top of this page, you can download the latest doc with all info I have, and a direct download to the adapted config and macros is available in the documentation.

The rest of the build including photos will be here later!

Update 3-2021: I recently built 2 other 3d printers using Duet2wifi boards: a cartesian I3 with independent extruders and a Delta 2GS.  Not much time to work on the big Voron.  I also just rebuilt my Geetech A30M  (330x330x400mm build size) from the smartto board to Duet2wifi, Check ik out on this site!

I will probably not build the big Voron 3d printer after all,  and if I don’t, I will rebuild my existing Voron 2.4 300×300 from Klipper, octopi and 2x SKR1.4 to Duet2wifi+Duex.  That will be interesting and achievable.

Since I am currently running 10 different 3d printers, my space is getting cramped in the house. I don’t want to expand into another room.  One should be enough. Having more printers gives me the best possible fit of a specific  filament type per printer.

The Voron is due to its perfect prints with ABS really only used for/with ABS or nylon.

The I3Bear dual carriage works best with dual PLA or PLA&PVA.

The Prusa mini works perfect with PETG

The I3Bear solo goes perfect with PETG or PLA.

The A30M & its mixing extruder goes perfect with PLA and/or PETG

And so on….

Voron 2.4 CoreXY 3Dprinter


Mijn ervaringen met CoreXY printers zijn uitstekend,  zodat ik voor mijn zelfbouw COREXY printer een VORON heb gekozen met een printformaat van 300x300x300 mm.

Sample PLA print with a Citroen DS at 175 mm/s print speed

De VORON is vanuit een grote community ontwikkeld en is een van de beste en meest betrouwbare 3Dprinters.  En deze printer ziet er gewoon erg goed uit!

Via AliExpress, Banggood, Reichelt, en  heb ik alle spullen besteld, conform de bill of materials die ik kon downloaden vanaf de VORON site.

De PETG delen heb ik op de Prusa mini op 0,15 fine geprint

De ABS delen (rood en zwart) zijn geprint op de Twotrees Sapphire plus.  Was wel heel wat ‘tweeken’ voor het ABS er goed uit kwam maar uiteindelijk een mooi resultaat!

Printed parts for the Voron 2.4 300

Uiteindelijk is nabouwen geen echte zelfbouw en is het toch meer gebaseerd op bestellen en in elkaar zetten dan zelf met de zaag en boormachine aan de gang zijn.  Ook de benodigde 8(!) lineare rails van 350mm, lagers, tandwielen, riemen, motoren, electronica enzovoorts is besteld en de rest van de benodigde spullen is inmiddels (25-8-2020)  geprint.

Voor het besturingsdeel heb ik één PI Raspberry PI 4B 4GB en twee stuks SKR 1,4 turbo motherboards gekozen, conform de VORON aanbeveling.

Het bouwen van de Voron 2.4 met de afterburner Beta1 hotend combinatie is d.m.v. de volgende foto’s in beeld gebracht.

Gantry gereed:

Gantry of my Voron 2.4 300

Behuizing en skirts onderzijde met Z-motors nog zonder de gantry gemonteerd:

Frame of my Voron 2.4 300

Electronics positioning underneath my Voron 2.4 300

Onder: De 9 mm aandrijfriemen van de 4 Z-assen geplaatst:

Halfway the building phase of my Voron 2.4 300

En de basisplaat met de rails en besturing,  voedingen enzovoorts gemonteerd (printer omgedraaid):

Cabling and electronics of my Voron 2.4 3000: 2xSKR1.4 turbo with Klipper, Raspberry PI and Octoprint with Klipper

Het wachten is nog op de lagers voor de Alpha-en Beta aandrijving in de gantry.  Met deze lagers wordt per 2 stuks steeds een spanrol gemaakt.  Hiervoor had ik oorspronkelijk spanrol lagers aangeschaft, maar de diameter van de kraag van deze lagers is net te groot.

Jammer maar dan maar even aan de Raspberry PI4B werken, in combinatie met 2 maal SKR V1.4 turbo motherboards.  De PI gaat via Klipper een nieuwe config.bin maken voor de SKR V1.4 motherboards zodat de PI beide SKR boards tegelijk kan aansturen.  Op het mainboard komen Alpha en Beta en de extruder plus de extruder heater, op het andere (Z)board de 4 Z-motoren en bed heater.  Op zich had een Duet met expansion board ook een optie kunnen zijn, maar de Voron ontwerpers hebben het met de PI, Klipper en 2 SKR boards gemaakt.  En ik probeer zo dicht mogelijk bij het ontwerp te blijven . -)

Onder: Inrijgen van de riemen, geen plaatje gebruikt.  Gewoon ergens beginnen en je komt vanzelf goed uit.  O ja, ook in de config nog even de sensor gewisseld van NC naar NO..

Onder: Naast het 24Volt 200 Watt hotbed toch ook het 500 Watt 230V erbij geplaatst.  Het opwarmen duurde met enkel de 24V versie meer dan 20 minuten om tot 110 graden Celsius te komen…


En nieuw: (nog geen PID run gedaan …-))

Onder: En gelijk ook de stalen plaat geplaatst, met magneetvel eronder.

Onder: Eerste print..  Was nog wel even zoeken naar de Z offset afstelling en de extruder draaide verkeerd om.  Ook de gantry levelen was even nadenken, je moet eigenlijk de basisinstelling eerst even met een maatlatje maken, anders duurt het vereffenen wel heel lang.  Mooi is dat een bed mesh leveling daarna niet meer hoeft, maar natuurlijk wel kan.  Je draait een home en doordat de nozzle altijd de Z op de mechanische Z endstop ijkt, en de gantry alle vereffening doet heb je altijd een goede eerste laag.  Tenzij het bed warpt maar met zo’n dikke plaat lijkt dat bijna niet mogelijk. Voor de zekerheid heb ik wel een bed_mesh profiel in de config.g opgenomen.  By the way heb ik gewoon een 24 V aluminium hotbed als basis gebruikt omdat mijn 8 mm 310×310 plaat een geknipte plaat bleek te zijn in plaats van gezaagd.   En een geknipte plaat blijkt standaard al aan de geknipte zijden niet vlak te zijn, helaas..  Vlakken kost meer dan een nieuwe plaat, dat komt misschien nog wel een keer…

En met kast, camera en verlichting en de vlakke plaat:


In de praktijk heb ik nog een paar kleine minpuntjes opgelost, waaronder:

  • Extruder tunen.  De donor extruder bleek het filament niet goed op te pakken.
    Eerst nog geprobeerd een ringetje links op de as ertussen te plaatsen, maar dan komt het nylon tandwiel rechts helemaal strak te zitten en kan de behuizng niet meer helemaal dicht….
    Ik heb uiteindelijk een spare setje dual drive extruder tandwielen gebruikt en de set tandwielen verwisseld.  Daarmee was het filament goed in lijn met het looppad van de tandwielen.  Zie de foto van hoe het eerst zat:

Misaligned filament path in Afterburner extruder

  • Hotend tunen
    Na de PID runs van hotend en heated bed bleek mijn gekozen samenstel van het aangepaste ED6 heater block, de heatbreak pipe en het koelelement niet goed op elkaar aan te sluiten.  Resultaat was dat bij een extractie van het filament steeds een diks stuk aan het eind vastzat.  Dat werd veroorzaakt doordat de heatbreak pipe niet strak aansloot op de nozzle.  Daar mag geen speling tussen zitten.  Alles helemaal gedementeerd en de heatbreak pipe 2 slagen minder ver in het koelelement gedraaid met rode threadlocker.  Dagje laten harden en daarna de rest gemonteerd.  By the way heb ik ook gelijk de teflon versie van de heatbreak pipe gemonteerd in plaats van de titanium versie.  De tintanium versie was naar mijn ervaring toch een beetje te stroef.  Of mijn filament was te oud of inferieur.  In ieder geval werkt alles na de aanpassing zonder problemen.


  • Hotbed, TPU en ABS
    Om TPU en ABS zonder brim of skirt zonder warping te printen heb ik een magnetisch PEI stalen plaat gekocht met grof profiel.  Dat werkt echt perfect. Zowel ABS met 110 graden blijft mooi zitten en met TPU op kamertemperatuur blijft het ook mooi plakken.  En het verwijderen gaat ook zonder problemen.  Af en toe spuit ik een klein beetje haarlak op de plaat maar ik denk dat die lak eigenlijk helemaal niet nodig is.  Het is bedoeld om het verwijderen gemakkelijker te maken.


  • Tension of the belts
    I tried getting the belts at the same tension, this was not that easy.  Finally I ended up with a mechanical way of measuring tension after putting 1 at my desired tension and comparing this as reference with the other to be compared belts.  So, for the Alpha and Beta belts I first did a ‘good feeling’ setting and then I used my old trunk scale weight device to measure the tension when pulling the belt A.  Then, I used the device to measure at the same place for B.  And I repeated this for the 4 vertical belts.


  • Uitlijning
    De machine uitlijnen is ook nog wel een dingetje…
    Je moet er van uitgaan dat je frame haaks en recht is.  Dat moet je terdege checken.  Zowel verticaal, horizontaal als diagonaal.  Daarna kun je de gantry stellen. Maak de A en B belts los en verwijder ze.  Of doe de uitlijning VOOR het plaatsen van de belts.
    Fixeer de horizontale positie van de Gantry anders kun je helemaal niets uitlijnen. Plaats 4 gelijke afstandsblokjes van ca. 10-15 cm onder de sliders van de verticale linear rails op de onderste 2020 profielen, in de 4 hoeken waardoor de gantry stabiel rust. Ik heb onder alle verticale MGN9 linear rails achteraf nog positiehouders geplaatst zodat de rails niet in het 20×20 V profiel kunnen schuiven.  Als je ‘gewone’ 20×20 extrusieprofiel gebruikt heb je geen probleem, omdat er genoeg ‘vlees’ overblijft voor de bevestiging van je raild op het profiel.  Bij V-profiel is de groef iets breder en is het erg moeilijk om zonder hulpmiddelen in de groef de rails netjes te monteren.  Mijn frame is van V-rail profiel en de gantry van gewoon 2020 profiel.
    Het uitlijnen van de gantry ben ik aan de achterkant gestart.  Alle schroeven een beetje lossen, ook de schroeven van de bolle connectors waarmee de gantry vast zit aan de linear rails.  Overigens zie ik bij sommige bouwers dat deze schroeven met meerdere veerringen zijn geplaatst.  Ga ik ook doen…
    Aan de achterkant van de gantry duw je de gantry volledig tegen de achterkant aan.  Er mag geen ruimte zitten tussen de XY joints en het frame.  PS: Laat de endstops er nog even af bij deze actie!
    Zet terwijl de gantry tegen de achterkant aanzit de XY joints vast en de sliders van de X- as ook. (de kant van de endstops holder dus tijdelijk maar even met 2 schroeven)
    Zet de achterste 2 gantry joints (met de bolle vlakken) ook vast.  Hiermee is de achterste positie haaks gefixeerd.
    Schuif de gantry voorzichtig naar voren. Dit moet zonder enige moeite kunnen.  Zo niet, check of er voldoende speling is (en schroef als nodig iets los) op de gantry joints aan de voorzijde (met de bolle vlakken).  Als je desondanks nog steeds geen vrije loop naar voren hebt is je frame niet goed of zitten je verticale rails niet goed.  Check eerst de juiste plaatsing van je rails met je positietool (uit de geprinte voorraad) en schroef voor de zekerheid ook de 4 schroefjes aan beide voorste verticale rails los..  Probeer weer of het schuiven van de gantry soepel gaat.  Nog steeds niet goed?  Draai dan de procedure om en begin aan de voorkant.  Probeer de gantry exact level te zetten met het frame.
    Na het stellen: Test de uitlijning ook halverwege (verticaal) en bovenin!